The advantage of confirmatory research is that the result is more meaningful, in the sense that it is much harder to claim that a certain result is generalizable beyond the data set.
The reason for this is that in confirmatory research, one ideally strives to reduce the probability of falsely reporting a coincidental result as meaningful.
State problems are easier to measure than process problems.
State problems just require one measurement of the phenomena of interest, while process problems always require multiple measurements.
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.
A research design is a framework that has been created to find answers to research questions. Nonetheless, the list below offers a number of useful distinctions between possible research designs.The researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions, measures the variables of interest and tries to control for confounding variables.Therefore, experiments are often highly fixed even before the data collection starts.It is also possible to have an idea about a relation between variables but to lack knowledge of the direction and strength of the relation.If the researcher does not have any specific hypotheses beforehand, the study is exploratory with respect to the variables in question (although it might be confirmatory for others).In a typical experimental study, there will be at least one "experimental" condition (e.g., "treatment") and one "control" condition ("no treatment"), but the appropriate method of grouping may depend on factors such as the duration of measurement phase and participant characteristics: Confirmatory research tests a priori hypotheses — outcome predictions that are made before the measurement phase begins.Such a priori hypotheses are usually derived from a theory or the results of previous studies.In other cases, the theory might not be available before one starts the research.The choice of how to group participants depends on the research hypothesis and on how the participants are sampled.Research designs such as repeated measurements and longitudinal study are needed to address process problems.In an experimental design, the researcher actively tries to change the situation, circumstances, or experience of participants (manipulation), which may lead to a change in behaviour or outcomes for the participants of the study.