Studies by Plan International in Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Liberia and Uganda found violence in primary and secondary schools, while varying across countries, to be prevalent.The research found that inappropriate sexual relations between male teachers and female students, including transactional sex to cover school fees and the cost of school materials and sex for grades to be common.
Studies by Plan International in Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Liberia and Uganda found violence in primary and secondary schools, while varying across countries, to be prevalent.The research found that inappropriate sexual relations between male teachers and female students, including transactional sex to cover school fees and the cost of school materials and sex for grades to be common.Tags: Discuss The Sources Of Literature ReviewViolence Essays Middle SchoolsHow To Do Business PlanningBiographical Essays Henry JamesImages Of Business PlansSolving Problems Quotes
For example, more than 80% of married 15 to 19 year-old women in Senegal, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon do not have the final say on their own healthcare.7 These inequalities are more severe for marginalised women, including female sex workers, transgender women, women who inject drugs, migrant women and women with disabilities who are also at a heightened risk of discrimination and violence.8 HIV disproportionately affects women and adolescent girls because of their unequal cultural, social and economic status in society.
This means that gender inequality must be tackled in order to end the global HIV epidemic, and achieve other, broader development outcomes.9 Intimate partner violence, inequitable laws and harmful traditional practices reinforce unequal power dynamics between men and women.
This is more likely to expose young women to unsafe sexual behaviours, low condom use and an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.47 The risk of trafficking and sexual exploitation is also higher for young women and adolescent girls living in poverty.48 Poverty also increases the risk of child marriage.
Worldwide, girls belonging to the poorest 25% are 2.5 times more likely to be married as children compared with girls in the richest 25%.49 Women and girls also experience heightened vulnerability to HIV in conflicts, emergencies and post-conflict periods. In other cases, adolescent girls are abducted and used for sexual purposes by armed groups.50 For example, a survey of internally-displaced families living in three camps in Sierra Leone found that 9% of female respondents reported having been victims and survivors of sexual violence related to the war.51 There are a number of international commitments which recognise that tackling gender inequality is vital to ending the global HIV epidemic and achieving wider development outcomes.
Despite more than a decade in power, New Labour has failed to tackle deep-rooted social injustices, according to a collection of essays from more than 20 researchers and academics.
Historically high levels of inequality, endemic violence against women and the increasing reliance on criminal justice measures to manage social problems are just some of the themes explored in , published by the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.Women from key populations are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence and the increased risk of HIV associated with it.A study in Vancouver, Canada found women who inject drugs who had experienced sexual violence were more likely to be living with HIV than other women who inject drugs.26 Despite such evidence, services for women who have experienced violence and services for people who use drugs are often disconnected.27 Intimate partner violence is typically underpinned by dominant cultural and social norms about masculinity, femininity, and sexuality.28 Research shows that gender inequality results from the patriarchal nature of many societies, especially where control of women and male strength and power is highly valued.29 Violence against women, including intimate partner violence and rape, is one consequence of gender inequality.Explore this page to find out more about how gender inequality increases a woman’s vulnerability to HIV, what is being done to tackle gender inequality and read about programmes tackling gender inequality and HIV.Despite progress in many aspects of the global HIV response, women - particularly adolescent girls and young women - continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV.In the opening section, entitled `Neoliberalism and New Labour', Professor Robert Reiner of the London School of Economics argues in his essay that punitive and authoritarian crime control policies are a product of Labour's economic and social policies.Given the extensive evidence of the relationship between income inequality and violent victimisation, he suggests that the more far reaching social policies that would address inequality are necessary for genuine progress.Many of those interviewed, while showing certain ambivalence, justified their actions on the basis that the women in question had not been `forced'.Coy argues that broad-based strategies that seek to challenge dangerous male attitudes and actions towards women need to complement standard criminal justice responses.However, such violence also reinforces and perpetuates gender inequality at both societal and relationship levels.30 Studies have shown that increasing educational achievement among women and girls is linked to better SRH outcomes, including lower rates of HIV infection, delayed childbearing, safer births and safer abortions.3132 In many settings, cultural and social norms mean that girls in families affected by HIV are the ones who drop out of school to care for sick parents or generate income for the family.33 Less than one in three girls in sub-Saharan Africa are enrolled in secondary school.34 The United Nations Children’s Fund estimates that 18.8 million children in West and Central Africa are not in school.Girls are particularly disadvantaged: just over half (54%) of young women in the region are literate.35 The education and empowerment of women and girls is also fundamental to preventing intimate partner and gender-based violence.36 An analysis of data from 44 countries found that completing secondary education significantly reduces a woman’s risk of intimate partner violence and that a girl’s education is more strongly associated with reduced risk of partner violence in countries where spousal abuse is more common.37 However, in many places schools are not guaranteed safe learning environments for young women.