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In practical sense, the ocean surface around the equator region warms up by small degrees Celsius along with very heavy thunderstorms.The small rise in temperatures is influenced by change in the normal wind direction.
In El Niño conditions, the winds propelling the water get weaker and as an outcome, some of the warm water collected in the west is heavily drawn towards the east.
At the same time, not so much cold water is pulled up from beneath.
Over the same period, traditional El Niño events have become more intense.
This new finding will arguably alter our understanding of the El Niño phenomenon.
For instance, the weakening of the trade winds allows the waters along the coast of Peru and Chile to warm and brings about unusual warm conditions in the South American coasts, contributing to heavy rains and flooding.
As much as El Niño presents differently from one occasion to another, the surest characteristic is that it creates tremendous changes in weather patterns.
’s free newsletters."data-newsletterpromo-image="https://static.scientificamerican.com/sciam/cache/file/458BF87F-514B-44EE-B87F5D531772CF83_source.png"data-newsletterpromo-button-text="Sign Up"data-newsletterpromo-button-link="https:// origincode=2018_sciam_Article Promo_Newsletter Sign Up"name="article Body" itemprop="article Body" The pattern of El Niño has changed dramatically in recent years, according to the first seasonal record distinguishing different types of El Niño events over the last 400 years.
A new category of El Niño has become far more prevalent in the last few decades than at any time in the past four centuries.
The ocean warming off South American coast is a prime example of an El Niño event.
The unusual rainfall and flooding in Peru, Southern California, and Chile are also usually tied to the El Niño climatic conditions.