Specific antibody to HIV is produced shortly after infection, but the exact time depends on several factors, including host and viral characteristics.
Importantly, antibody may be present at low levels during early infection but not at the detection limit of some assays.
Regardless of the particular screening test used, serum or plasma samples first are tested (screened) using a test with high sensitivity, most often an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), "rapid test," or "simple method" (described below).
ELISA is the screening method used most commonly, with the other 2 methodologies offering more rapid results with simple procedures applicable for use in point-of-care testing and in developing countries.
The diversity of potential applications has conducted to the development of lytic enzyme systems with specific characteristics, suitable for satisfying the requirements of each particular application.
Nucleic acids used for molecular cloning can be of natural or synthetic origin, and their length ranges from a few to several thousands nucleotides.
Technical errors do occur, however, and there are biologic factors that can limit the accuracy of HIV tests.
Therefore, along with the testing process, there is the requirement for an extraordinary and dedicated quality assurance program.(1) Regardless of the results, because laboratory tests are not perfect, they are meant to be a supplement for clinical diagnosis.
Along with the development of natural and social sciences, nowadays, biotechnology carries more colorful meanings.
In the modern world, biotechnology often refers to the process of making or modifying products using living systems or organisms.