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Emotional Intelligence (EI) emerged in the 1990s as an ability based construct analogous to general Intelligence. An evaluation of construct validity: What is this thing called emotional intelligence?
Accordingly, it was argued that individuals high in EI could accurately perceive certain emotions in themselves and others (e.g., anger, sadness) and also regulate emotions in themselves and others in order to achieve a range of adaptive outcomes or emotional states (e.g., motivation, creative thinking).
However, despite having a clear definition and conceptual basis, early research on EI was characterized by the development of multiple measures (e.g., Bar-On, 1997a,b; Schutte et al., 1998; Mayer et al., 1999) with varying degrees of similarity (see Van Rooy et al., 2005).
Ability test data for EI for 84 leaders in an assessment center were used to predict unobtrusive observations of leader responses to subordinate’s emotions in a role play, and expert ratings of leadership effectiveness, controlling for cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-04-2018-0154 Download as .
EI predicted the appropriateness of leader responses to subordinate’s emotions, and these responses mediated the relationships of EI and leadership effectiveness, controlling for cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits.
In this paper we seek to provide guidance to researchers and practitioners seeking to utilize EI in their work. Faking on self-report emotional intelligence and personality tests: Effects of faking opportunity, cognitive ability, and job type.
We first provide an overview of the different conceptualizations of EI. We include comprehensive tables summarizing key empirical studies on each measure, in terms of their research design and main findings. Our review includes measures that are academic and/or commercial as well as those that are freely available or require payment. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Sheldon, O. The study provides stronger evidence for the relationship between EI and leadership effectiveness than previous research, bolstering the confidence in conclusions regarding this relationship. (2018), "Emotional intelligence, management of subordinate’s emotions, and leadership effectiveness", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. The study also contributes to the development of process models of the influence of EI on leadership effectiveness by providing evidence regarding mediation. A comprehensive discussion of this issue is beyond the scope of this article (see Petrides, 2011 for more details) however one clear challenge faced by early EI test developers was constructing emotion-focused questions that could be scored with objective criteria. doi: 10.1017/S0954579404044566 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Schutte, N. In comparison to measures of cognitive ability that have objectively right/wrong answers (e.g., mathematical problems), items designed to measure emotional abilities often rely on expert judgment to define correct answers which is problematic for multiple reasons (Roberts et al., 2001; Maul, 2012). We conclude with a comprehensive review of the major measures of EI in terms of factor structure, reliability, and validity. The purpose of this article is to review major, widely-used measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and make recommendations regarding their appropriate use. Saklofske (San Diego, CA: Academic Press), 381–414. We take into account such factors as test length, number of facets measured and whether tests are freely available. doi: 10.1037/a0034138 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Siegling, A. Consequently we also provide recommendations both for users willing to purchase tests and those preferring to utilize freely available measures.