Cognitive Dissertation

In each of these studies I demonstrate that, as with default choices, an emphasis on either autonomy or accountability can communicate what is normative and expected, change the meaning of the behavior in consideration, and guide the choices that people ultimately make, as well as how those choices are construed by both themselves and others.Both a framing of autonomy and of accountability allow the exercise of choice, yet communicate very different ideas about what behavior is valued.

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Here, I argue that foregrounding autonomy has the effect of communicating that a social choice or commitment is optional, and the choice available to a person is therefore whether or not to opt-in.

In contrast, when accountability is foregrounded, commitment to others is perceived as normative and the construal of the choice available to people is whether or not to opt-out.

In 4 studies I manipulate which social expectation was foregrounded by using subtle cues in language (Study 3) and then explicitly by creating different attendance policies for a Community Club (Study 4) and an academic workshop (Studies 5a and 5b).

In the autonomy foregrounding ("opt-in") condition, I drew on the results from Part 1 to create a community that prioritizes individual autonomy.

Participants were told members are free to attend events when they choose and that this ensures a highly engaged community.

In the accountability foregrounding ("opt-out") condition, participants were told members are expected to attend every meeting, unless they are unable to do so, and that this creates a tight-knit community.One overlooked reason for this might be the focus on creating mechanistic stories while sacrificing measurement rigor.This dissertation explores the meaning of a 'marker' of self-regulation from a psychometric perspective.Regarding between-subjects designs we show how extensive model comparisons can reveal conflicting narratives and how neural group differences might lie in properties other than the central tendency of distributions.To sample the important parts of the visual world observers make saccades, moving the high-resolution and color-sensitive fovea to informative locations.At an intuitive level covert attention is a focusing on a feature or a location in the visual world and a suppression of other irrelevant features and locations.When operationalized into the laboratory, cueing an observer with covert attention can be shown to result in improved detection, smaller thresholds of discrimination, faster reaction times, and suppression of distractors.Our work highlights the importance of the required and varying statistical properties of a self-regulation marker depending on the research question.With respect to within-subjects analyses we present the largest comparison of behavioral self-regulation measures in their suitability for individual difference analyses using retest-reliability.Result includes all theses and dissertations — from all sources — held in the Stanford Libraries and Digital Repository. is that people are individually in control of and responsible for their lives--the individual is considered as separate and apart from others (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; 1994; Markus, 2017).To show Stanford work only, refine by Stanford student work or by Stanford school or department. Though this narrative has produced incredible technological and economic development in the Western world, many of the most urgent global demands, such as climate change and extreme inequality, will require an emphasis not on individual autonomy, but on people's fundamental interconnectedness with and accountability to one another and the natural world--or, an emphasis on how people are a part of a larger whole (e.g., Hamedani, Markus, & Fu, 2013).

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