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There are three degrees of PPD that can be experienced by a woman after childbirth: 1) “baby blues” which the DSM classifies as Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (309.0) or with Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood (309.28) and which resolves without significant consequences; 2) postpartum depression or Major Depressive Disorder, and; 3) postpartum psychosis, Mood Disorder with Psychotic features (296.x4) or Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (298.9). women who give birth experience postpartum blues” (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologist, 1999). As the focus of this paper is Postpartum Depression, it is vital to differentiate the degrees of PPD. The ‘baby blues’ is characterized by mild and transient mood disturbances with an onset of 1-7 days postpartum with a peak between day 5-6 postpartum.
(1991) found that “stress interactions accounted for very significant proportions of the variance in the depression outcome. Hobfoll, S., Ritter, C., Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M., & Cameron, R. Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women.
There was very little association between hormonal variables and postpartum depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 445-453. Iranfar, S., Shakeri, J., Ranjbar, M., Nazhadjafar, P., & Razaie, M. Is unintended pregnancy a risk for depression in Iranian women? Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 11(4), 618-624).
Vulnerability coupled with life stress predicated the diagnosis of depression” (p. Vulnerability speaks to the psychological theories of PPD which according to the cognitive model, “a patients negative view of the world and herself leads to depression and low self-esteem and disturb relationships” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995).
“Three correlates of PPD are consistently found by researchers: marriage problems and lack of social support, particularly the father’s, infant problems, including pregnancy and delivery problems, and a prior history of depression or other emotional problems (Hagen, 1996).
Onset can be dramatic and abrupt and can begin within 2 to 4 weeks postpartum or as early as 2 to 3 days.
Case Studies On Postpartum Depression Gcse Maths No Coursework
Early symptoms include restlessness, irritability and insomnia. Other hormonal factors such as estrogen levels which decrease significantly in the postpartum period and regulate mood, memory, and cognition and brain function has been thought to play a major role in the onset of PPD. “The specific effects are best characterized in the dopamine system where estrogen increases dopamine turnover through the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, degradative enzymes, and turnover dopaminergic receptors” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p.). Symptoms include low mood, anxiety, crying, irritability, insomnia, and mood lability. Because of its commonality, it is viewed as a ‘normal’ phenomenon. At the other end of the spectrum is Postpartum psychosis, a rare illness only affecting 2 out of every 1000 women who give birth (APA, 2000). “Of the 13 studies addressing the role of socioeconomic factors in PMD/PPD, only two found that low socioeconomic status is predictive of PMD/PPD” (Epperson, 1999). Women who have a prior history of depression or mood disorders displayed a significant influence on the occurrence of PMD/PPD during postpartum. The connection between childbirth and psychological instability has been historically validated. In 1858, Marce’ in his Treatise on Insanity of Pregnant and Lactation Women, “linked negative emotional reactions with childbirth (Griffin Hospital, 2004). It was not until 1958 with the publishing of the DSM II that “Psychosis with Childbirth” was even included. Prior to this, no gender discussion had been included in the DSM, however, “with each edition, of the DSM, there has been greater attention paid to gender issues” (Kornstein, 2010, p. The DSM III eliminated this diagnosis due to lack of evidence that PPS was a distinct entity. With the media attention being given to women who carried out infanticide and/or suicide during the postpartum period the necessity of inclusion of a disorder during the postpartum period became vital.